The province has been established on 1640 altitude. There is Iran on the east side of the province of which importance has been increased because of the road ensuring the connection of Anatolia with Iran, there are Muş and Erzurum on its west side and Kars on its north side, Ban and Bitlis on its south and Iğdır on its northeast side. 46% of its lands consists of mountain areas, 29% of it consists of lowlands, 18% of it consists of plateau and 7% of it consists of tablelands. Its climate is cold and stern during winter mounts while it is dry and hot during summer.
Lowlands and planes are generally limited to faultlines (faults) and mountains. Therefore, they are not large enough. Such lowlands in depression form was created with the accumulation of land. Ağrı Lowlands, Eleşkirt Lowland, Patnos Lowland, Doğubayazıt Lowland and Tutak Lowlands are the leading ones. Forage crops, cereal, sugar beet are cultivated on these lowlands which are of great significance for agriculture and husbandry which are the primary income source of Ağrı’s economy . Plains which are out of the cultivation fields are used as forages.
MountainsThe mountains consisting the great majority of Ağrı are seen as chains of mountains. The mountains covering the province are seen in east-west line and as two branches as the continuance of Alps-Himalayas, the volcanic mountain system. Major Ağrı Mountain which is the highest summit of Turkey and Europe is within the boundaries of Doğubayazıt district and has height of 5.137 Minor Ağrı Mountain has height of 3.896. Süphan Mountain of which one part is within Patnos has height of 4.049 mt. And Kösedağ which gave its name to Ağrı once has an important position with its height of 3.340 mt. Tendürek Mountain between Doğubayazıt and Çaldıran host for a crater river which has height of 3.000 mt and diameter of 400-500 as well as the highest summit of 3.533 mt. Tendurek is also known as the most active volcano of Turkey. Bubi Mountain is another significant heights which is 18 km away from the center of Ağrı.
StreamsThe largest stream in Ağrı is Murat River which is one of the branches of Fırat River. It is born in Diyadin and then formed by the connection of the branches coming from Aladağ and Muratbaşı Mountain. Murat River passes through Diyadin Lowland and connects with the branches coming to Eleşkirt then flows through southwest and reach to Malazgirt Lowland.
Mineral Springs and Hot SpringsAğrı is rich in thermal resources and healing waters. Especially the temperature of the thermal resources in Diyadin can be up to 75 degrees. According to the analyses, thermal resources which have been proved to be beneficial for various diseases are provided to the service of public with the investments made by private sector and public sector. Thermal resources are used for heating as well.
VegetationSince it is volcanic land, rains are rare and the temperatures are low, the mountains and lowlands are without plants. Vegetation of the province which has not any forest within its boundaries is moorlands in the shape of high plateau steps generally. Moorlands are especially intense in center of Ağrı, Eleşkirt and Upper part of Murat River.